This is the effect the cassava mealybug has on the plant resulting in a huge loss of crop due to infested plant crop. Phenacoccus manihoti There was a desperate need for something that could stop the crop destruction on the cassava plant and by finding the wasp that ate the mealybug which was destroying the crop made the crop loss decrease dramatically There was 80% of crop lost so with the help of the cassava mealybug project has gone down to 43 % (7) this a huge benefit for the locals economically it brings in more income for them and also more food, As is a large food source for the local people. Bulletin of Entomological Research, 83 1: Norgaard RB The biological control of cassava mealybug … Cassava mealybug (329) - Widespread distribution. The project yielded economic returns of 200:1, with minimum benefits of US$ 2.2 billion from a total expenditure of US$ 14.8 million. The most effective pesticide tested was methidathion; in trials the infested cassava showed significant recovery. & Fabres 1987), and the entomophthoraceous fungus Neozygites fumosa (Speare) Remaudiere Therefore, the two datasets combined provided the best estimate of where cassava could have been grown throughout the period in which our Casdava. the parasitoid peak populations in excess of 1,500 per shoot were common Williams 1981). The economics of the project were evaluated based on data from field trials, socio-economic surveys, published results, … This is a species of parasitic wasp used as the biological control agent against the cassava mealybug. Entomophaga 32:  181-89. The results were a reduction in mealybug damage was seen in the first season following release in both the leaf and the root, and full control was typically achieved within 2–4 years (6) after and now after a decade (10 years) the cassava mealybug and the wasps lived in natural balance with the mealybug population down to a maximum of 10% of what they were 10 years ago at a peak of the infestation. Pesticides can be used to control out breaks of mealybugs. The common leaf and stem pests of cassava are cassava mealybug, cassava green mite, var-iegated grasshopper, and whiteflies. On the right is a picture (4) of a cassava plant which has been infested by the mealybug. When the same wasp was used to control mealybugs in West Africa in the early 1980s, it promptly suppressed the pest population levels from more than 100 individuals on each cassava … levels of the cassava mealybug had been observed in all regions colonized by E. lopezi. This is the case of the cassava mealybug; feeding of this mealybug on cassava plants causes stunting, leaf distortion, shortening of the internodes and loss, dieback and weakening of stems used for crop propagation. When the same wasp was used to control mealybugs in West Africa in the early 1980s, it promptly suppressed the pest population levels from more than 100 individuals on each cassava … The spread of E. lopezi This was a huge breakthrough as without this research it had the ability to cause huge damage on the environment and the economy because of further damage to other crops. Biological Pest Control Case Study – the cassava mealybug Surveys were carried out in Zambia twice yearly from 1986 to 1990, to assess the impact of a biological control campaign against the cassava mealybug (CM), Phenacoccus manihoti Mat.-Ferr., throughout the infested area. The cassava plant is the habitat of the cassava mealybug and is damaged by the insect. Causes loss of leaves (in Africa, cassava used as leafy vegetable), low root yields, and poor cuttings for next crop. The mealybug, originally from South America, is devastating Indonesia’s cassava crop [Georgina Smith/CIAT] Scientists will release 3,000 parasitoid wasps in a cassava plantation in the Indonesian city of Bogor, hoping they will prey on the pink mealybug pest that has devastated the crop, the second-most-consumed starch in Indonesia. Firstly because mealybugs are protected from aqueous sprays by their wax coat and seek sheltered sites at certain points in which to feed, insecticides must be applied when mealybugs have least wax and are most exposed. 1985. The successful ), Handbook of Biological Control:  about 5.5 million ha. Yield losses as reported by farmers are averaged at about 80% during the 1983 cassava mealybug outbreak but were reduced to 43% in 1979 pre infestation levels. Kinds of Cassava Pest and How to Control. The results were a reduction in mealybug damage was seen in the first season following release in both the leaf and the root, and full control was typically achieved within 2–4 years (6) after and now after a decade (10 years) the cassava mealybug and the wasps lived in natural balance with the mealybug population down to a maximum of 10% of what they were 10 years ago at a peak of the infestation. Transient Agricultural Environments In:  Bellows, T. S. & T. W. Fisher (eds. CIAT, Cali, Colombia. Ibadan, Niger: IITA. A. Reyes, J. M. Guerrero & A. M. The cost of setting up the project is costly especially as it is a longitudinal study so will have a large amount of money spent which will be spent over the years as has to be monitored over the years. 2 The sources/generators of food waste.............................................................................................. 3 1. in tropical regions of the world, cassava is an important root crop (Bellotti and Thailand. Principles and Applications. Exp. This is a well-documented example of a classical biological control project that has had a large impact on sub-Saharan Africa (Herren & Neuenschwander 1991). pests of cassava. The wasps were able to control the cassava eating the cassava crops by the wasp laying eggs on the mealybug they grew on the mealybug, the wasp larvae then killing the mealybug this would have a huge effect on the population as seen in South America, of the mealybug and therefore restoring the natural balance. Is biological pest control better than chemical pest control. be harvested 7 to 18 months after planting. Researchers spread the wasps through ground operations and even airplane drops, seeding cassava regions with the predators. and potential for biological control, p. 393-439. The problem – The cassava mealybug- eating cassava plant- biological control of mealybug by using wasps. Pseudococcidae). Mealybugs are common indoor pests. The next four years the starchy thickened roots became the main source of food for millions of Africans, providing up to 70% of the recommended daily intake. cassava mealybug, Phenacoccus Biological Pest Control Case Study – the cassava mealybug. Biological control: Farming and release the parasitic wasp field Anagyrus lopezi De Santis or Epidiocarsis lopezi De Santis to control the pink mealybug damage cassava flour. (2017, Aug 31). manihoti (Homoptera: This suggests that such a cassava variety may synergistically interact with the coccinellids to provide a significant level of mealybug control. A. Reyes (eds.) The cassava is a major food in the developing world, providing a basic diet for around 500 million people. This time is in early spring as the mealybugs will feed on the foliage and at this point the mealybugs are young and have not had enough time to produce the full thick layer of wax coating. A basic energy source in the tropics, p. 1-29. was spectacular; by December of 1985 it had become established over 650,.000 Inst. production (80%) is concentrated in Brazil, Indonesia, Nigeria, Zaire, India The cassava-mealybug-E. lopezi epi- In:  J. H. Cock & J. Direct Control. He then became involved in plant genetic engineering research and showed that there were numerous genes which were potentially useful in crop plants but they were struggling to find a method for delivering these genes into the plant genome, there was no transformation technology(8) . Many different kinds were used and studied and they did seem to be effective, but they were costly. Retrieved from https://phdessay.com/biological-pest-control-case-study-cassava-mealybug/, Biological Pest Control Case Study – the cassava mealybug. appears specific to cassava and the only species capable of producing severe This suggests that such a cassava variety may synergistically interact with the coccinellids to provide a significant level of mealybug control. Cassava is one of the most drought-tolerant crops, capable of growing on marginal soils. in South America and Africa. He was looking into crop improvement and saw the power of genetic selection and how there was limited changed possible using just selective breeding. This Cassava pests and their control, p. 343-92. The successful control of both the cassava mosaic disease and the cassava mealybug problems has raised cassava yields and turned cassava into a cash crop that is now spreading throughout Africa. The economic impact of biological control of the cassava mealybug, mainly by A. Introduction (Lema & Herren 1985, Kogan et al. This plant is native to and Camponotus spp. The estimated losses caused by this species and another explosive spp., were estimated at $2.0 billion per year, and the pests affected an area Cassava powder pink mealybug damage is dangerous pests and diseases, are difficult to control. 1985. mealybugs (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) with description of a new species. The impact of Phenacoccus manihoti Matile-Ferrero on growth and tuber yield of cassava, and the results of its biological control by the exotic parasitoid Epidinocarsis lopezi (De Santis) were investigated in a survey of 60 farmers' fields in Ghana and Ivory Coast over an area of 180 000 km 2 of the savana and forest ecosystems. Since that time, cassava has constituted a major food crop for more than 500 million people in the tropical countries of Africa, Asia and Latin America (Cock, 1982). Biological Control of the Cassava Mealybug in Africa: A Review Peter Neuenschwander Plant Health Management Division, International Institute of Tropical Agriculture, B.P. This successful biological control program of cassava mealybug in Africa is probably one of the best demonstrations of the potential of this tactic for IPM in short term crops. If a pesticide is required, the following are recommended: Use horticultural oil (made from petroleum), white oil (made from vegetable oils), or soap solution ( see Fact Sheet no. phenomenon, but one that is increasing in areas where it had not previously A major food source for over 300 million people Cassava mealybug - Biological control, p. Am J Agric Econ 70: 366–371. A major food source for over 300 million people An effective biological control is immersion of stakes in a suspension of Trichoderma viride, a soil fungus that parasitizes other soil-borne fungi. Matile-Ferrero -- Pseudococcidae. Biological control and host plant resistance to control the cassava mealybug and green mite in Africa: Proceedings of an international workshop. This new pest status results from an imbalance between the mealybug, Another South They eventually found that a tiny wasp (smaller than the head of a pin) called the Leptomastix, which laid its eggs on the mealybug was keeping the mealy bugs under control therefore protecting the cassava plant. Cassava mealybug control : parasitoid wasps hold the kairomone key The mealybug Phenacoccus herreni feeds on cassava plant sap, inducing shrivelling. nimalDefenses Animal AnimAl BehAvior t Animal Communication Animal Courtship Animal Defenses Animal Hunting and Feeding Animal Life in Groups Animal Migration Defenses ChristinA WilsDon Animal Animal Behavior: Animal Defenses Copyright. In Biological Control in IPM Systems in Africa. All the mealybug populations were collected from M. esculenta. Inst. IITA. Roots are harvested by pulling the stems and uprooting the whole Pesticides were used as an initial response to the cassava mealybug problem. populations de Phenacoccus manihoti (Hom. The cultivated tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) is one of the most popular and extensively consumed vegetable crops. p. Kiyindou, A. areas, the mealybug was recorded at populations of 10-20 per terminal cassava 1999). ), Biological Pest Control Case Study - the cassava mealybug, https://phdessay.com/biological-pest-control-case-study-cassava-mealybug/, Use of Phytoremediation in Salt Pollution. Although there is many reasons why there was a need for this biological control of the cassava mealybug, but there was also a huge risk of the environment being destroyed for example, if the wasp was not highly specific to the mealybug and caused a different crop to grow out of control this could also affect the natural balance of the environment resulting in and upset of the natural predators food source leading to disruption of habitat and extinction of some insects which will have a large effect on predators higher up the food chain. fungus Neozygites fumosa in a population of the plant. 1985. Hire a subject expert to help you with Biological Pest Control Case Study – the cassava mealybug. In conclusion the biological control of the mealybug has had a huge effect and has caused the problem of the economy and environment to be resolved therefore keeping harmony between the organisms and the human population by keeping a natural balance between the small wasp and the mealybug. 08 0932, Cotonou, Benin Norgaard Cassava Mealybug Control 367 cassava-growing region of Africa, and losses from mealybug were brought under control. As a positive control for species differentiation, adult females of Phenacoccus madeirensis from cassava plants grown in the CIAT fields were used. (Col.: Coccinellidae) predateur introduit au Congo pour la regulation des Annual Review of Entomology 36:257-283; and CABI (2017) Phenacoccus manihoti (cassava mealybug… other tactics are being used against this and other cassava pests, including Trop Agric., Ibadan, Nigeria. In: Herren HR, Hennessey RN, editors. Food is vital for humans to survive, the population of the world is immense as it approaches 6 billion and all these humans need to be fed on a continual. In:  J. H. Cock & J. manihoti. Tests were run on the wasp by the CABI Bioscience in the UK. 1 The sources of food waste. The yield loss in infested plants is estimated to be up to 60 percent of root and 100 percent of the leaves the root is the main source of food so this causes a huge problem for the crop yield. However, Whitefly and mealybug numbers can also be reduced with sticky traps and by spraying plants with soapy water.Control of Major Cassava DiseasesAlthough the largest number of cassava diseases is found in Latin America and the Caribbean, the plant’s centre of origin, many of them are now also found in sub-Saharan Africa and Asia. Cassava:  Research, Production and Utilization. Dissemination, dispersal, and impact of E. lopezi - A natural enemy of the cassava mealybug, p. Exclusion experiments and continuous raynevali Mulsant (Kiyindou cassava growing areas of the continent. However, it can be parasitized by two wasps, Acerophagus coccois and Aenasius vexans which act out a ritual to recognize and select the individuals they are going to parasitize. monitoring demonstrated the efficiency of the parasitoid in regulating P. manihoti populations in Africa. Epizootiology of the entomophthoraceous Mealybugs injecting toxic substance while feeding cause plant deformation. seemed to be specific to the cassava mealybug (Cox & Williams Mealybugs of the genus Phenacoccus have been recorded in association with cassava The mealybug control effort was at scale – massive scale. Mealybug damage seems to be a recent manihoti Matile-Ferrero Extensive explorations for natural enemies were conducted in South Several soap or oil sprays will be needed to bring the mealybugs under control. 1 The definition of food waste ............................................................................................................ 1 1. collected in Paraguay by M. Yaseen, was imported to Nigeria and released at 745 p. 745 Direct Control. The model is constructed based upon farmers’ usual practices of cassava planting in Thailand. on the coccinellid. Over 2009–10, the Thai Royal Government mitigated P. manihoti attack through importation biological control (IBC; also known as species (Neuenschwander et al. A. Reyes, J. M. Guerrero & A. M. Southeast Asia, but NOT yet in Oceania. found at:   MELVYL It is one of. Ent. natural enemies associated with P. 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